General Library and Archives

1. Dress Is a Language

2. Religious Basis for Plain Clothing

3. Where Did the Plain Pattern Come From?

4. The Faithful Few

5. Change: A Case Study from the Mennonite Church

6. Who Else Dresses Plain?

7. Common Objections to Plain Dress

8. My Path to Plainness

9. Will Plain Dress Survive?

10. General Clothing Details

11. Women’s Clothing

12. Men’s Clothing

13. Plain Dress in Detail

 

Pages: 160

Publisher: Good Books

Year: 1997

Introducing the Amish in America

1. The Amish in America: An Overview

2. Era of Consolidation, 1800-50

 

Amish Church Polity, Beliefs, and Discipline

3. The Amish Congregation and the Structure of the Ministry

4. Nineteenth-Century Amish Beliefs and Lifestyle

The Amish View of Christ and his Church

3. “Keeping House”: Banning and Shunning

 

The Great Schism

7. The Coming of the Great Schism, 1848-62

8. The Diener Versammlungen, 1862-65

9. Point of No Return, 1865

10. The Annual Conferences of 1866-78

 

Amish, Amish Mennonites, and Mennonites

11. Amish Mennonites

12. Toward union with the Mennonite Church

13. Old Order Amish

 

Pages: 359

Publisher: Herald Press

Year: 1991

Table of Contents

 

 

 

The Beachy Amish
Mennonite Fellowship Churches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Elmer S. Yoder

1. Stepping Across Fifteen Hundred Years

2. The Religious Reformation and the Anabaptists

3. The Division of 1693-1711

4. The Amish in the Americas

5. The Meidung Controversy

6. The Beachy Amish Churches Emerge and Consolidate

7. Organization and Ministerial Body

8. Congregational and Community Life

9. Inter-Mennonite and Parachuch

10. The Congregations

11. Introducing the Ministers

12. Retrospect and Prospect

 

Pages: 444

Publisher: Diakonia Ministries

Year: 1987

By Daniel Kauffman

 

Doctrines of the Bible was published in 1928, at a time of conservatism among Mennonite churches. Today, the book is used as a reference guide by many conservative Mennonites and Beachy Amish-Mennonites. The book is recommended for those interested in an overview of what plain Anabaptists generally believe and the Bible references for why.

Part I-The Doctrine of God

1. God-His Being and Attributes

2. God-His Works

3. The Trinity

4. God the Father

5. God the Son

6. God the Holy Ghost

Part II-The Doctrine of Man

1. Man

2. Man-Historical Sketch

3. Man in His Fallen State

4. Man Redeemed

5. Death

Part III– God and Man

1. Man’s Fall-God’s Redemptive Grace

2. Revelation

3. The Bible

4. The Home

5. The Church

6. The Day of Rest and Worship

7. Angels

Part IV-The Realms of Darkness

1. Satan

2. Satan-His Dominions

3. Sin

4. Unbelief

3. Obedience

4. Worship

5. Self-denial

6. Nonconformity to the World

7. Nonresistance

8. Swearing Oaths

9. Secret Societies

10. Life Insurance

11. Love

12. Purity

13. Humility

14. The Christian’s Hope

Part VIII– The Doctrines of the Future

1. The Second Coming of Christ

2. The Resurrection

3. The Judgment

4. Hell

5. Heaven

Subject Index

 

Pages: 639 (hardcover)

Publisher: Herald Press

Year: Originally published 1928

Table of Contents

Part V-God’s Plan for Salvation

1. The Atonement

2. Redemption

3. Faith

4. Repentance

5. Justification

6. Conversion

7. Regeneration

8. Adoption

9. Sanctification

Part VI-The Doctrine of the Church

1. The Christian Church

2. The Ministry

3. The Congregation

4. Christian Ordinances

5. Baptism

6. The Communion

7. Feet Washing

8. The Devotional Covering

9. The Christian Salutation

10. Anointing with Oil

11. Marriage

Part VII-Christian Life

1. Christian Service

2. Prayer

The Beachy Amish-Mennonite

Fellowship Churches

by Elmer S. Yoder

 

Written for the Beachy Amish-Mennonite's sixtieth anniversary, this was the first comprehensive Beachy book  at its publication (1987). The book is rudimentary in appearance, but contains a wealth of information about the Beachys, including a complete history of most congregations and an index of ordained men. Its strength is its comprehensive overview of early Beachy history. The book also discussions institutions, social patterns, strange events and stories, and monumental moments in church’s history.

 

This book may also be bought for $25+$5 shipping. Please use this form and your order shall be forwarded, or order from the link below the book graphic:

 

Table of Contents

Mennonites in Texas:

The Quiet in the Land

 

By Susan Gaetz Duarte

 

What started out as an interest in family history turned into a masters thesis in photography. About a decade after completion, Gaetz Duarte published much of her work in Mennonites in Texas, a visually-stimulating account of a Texan Beachy A.M. congregation. The photographs of the community are beautiful, and the accompanying text includes a concise summary of Beachy A.M. history, practice, and thought. The first half of the book includes a photo essay of an Old Colony Mennonite settlement in western Texas, written and photographed by Camden.

 

Pages: 123 (hardcover)

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

Year: 2006

Doctrines of the Bible

An Introduction to Old Order and

Conservative Mennonite Groups

 

by Stephen Scott

 

Beachy Amish-Mennonites are similar in belief and practice to many of the conservative Mennonites, albeit with Amish roots. This book details the beliefs, culture, and daily life of a variety of the Beachy A.M.’s closely related kin: the Old Order and conservative Mennonites. A useful compass for those seeking to understand and navigate the many subgroups of plain Anabaptists.

 

Table of Contents

Why Do They Dress That Way?

 

by Stephen Scott

 

This is the most comprehensive and detailed account of plain dress among conservative Anabaptist groups. The book addresses why plain Anabaptists wear distinctive dress, what different groups wear, and how plain dress developed. There are several topical chapters of interest: one provides rebuttals for common objections to plain dress, another is a case study of a Mennonite group that abandoned plain dress, and a third chapter is the author’s testimony as to how and why he came to adopt plain dress. The book is well cited, authoritative, and friendly to a variety of audiences. Highly recommended.

 

Table of Contents

Tradition & Transition:

Amish-Mennonites and Old Order Amish 1800-1900

 

By Paton Yoder

 

The Beachy Amish-Mennonites are but one branch of Amish-Mennonite. This book describes the emergence of the Amish-Mennonites as a movement separate from the Old Order Amish, beginning in the 1860s. While not part of this original Amish-Mennonite movement (which claimed a majority of the Amish at that time), the Beachy type of Amish-Mennonites would emerge in the 1900s after many Amish-Mennonite conferences dropped the word “Amish” and merged with the Mennonites. Today, the Beachys are the largest group of Amish-Mennonites, but also only one of the few Amish-Mennonite groups remaining.

Overcoming Evil God’s Way

 

By Stephen Russell

 

We live in a world wracked by violence and despair. Does that mean that every act of violence must be met with an equal or greater counterblow? Overcoming Evil God’s Way asserts that the biblical message offers hope of repentance, forgiveness, and reconciliation in place of hatred, vengeance, and fear. This book looks at both the historical and the biblical evidence for the nonresistant lifestyle of Christians.

 

Why do Christians disagree among themselves about war?

What is the overarching narrative of the Bible, and what does it have to say about peace?

What is the Christian's right and just battle?

What is the biblical model for the Christian life?

How have platonism and Islamic thought weakened the church's grasp on nonresistance?

What place does the gospel of peace have in winning Muslims and others who have discounted the Christian message, life, and community?

 

Russell is a member of a Beachy Amish-Mennonite church and teaches at Faith Builders Educational Programs.

 

 $11.99 + shipping.

Tradition and Transition:
An Introduction to Old Order: and Conservative Mennonite Groups
Mennonites in Texas: The Quiet in the Land
Why Do They Dress That Way?: People's Place Book No. 7 (Rev ed) (People's Place Book, No 7)
Doctrines of the Bible: A Brief Discussion of the Teachings of God's Word

The Amish-Mennonites of North America:

A Portrait of Our People

 

by Cory Anderson (BeachyAM.org owner)

  

From Florida to California, from five members to 263, from German in services to English, and from suspenders and broadfall pants to T-shirts and blue jeans, the Amish-Mennonites of North America are one of the most diverse and dispersed Anabaptist groups today. Originally “Amish with cars,” the Amish-Mennonites have followed many paths in the over 100 years since the first churches that now inhabit this movement originated. This book is a grand-scale portrait of the Amish-Mennonites.

—It features places: over 200 meetinghouse photographs, each with an accompanying profile. Detailed maps orient the reader and track church origins.

—It features people: over 50 church pages include a picture of the real “church,” the people. Charts and graphs from a 2012 census illuminate population trends.

—It features our past: a thorough, yet concise, essay about the Amish-Mennonite origins and development makes clear a history that will be intriguing to the lifetime members and young alike.

 

The Amish-Mennonites of North America is a landmark work that the entire family will enjoy.

 

Pgs. 304   Hard cover / dust jacket. Copies may be ordered for $35+$4.95 s/h.

Section One: The Old Order Mennonites

1. The Beginnings of the Old Order Mennonite Movement

2. Traveling Slowly in the Straight and Narrow Way: The Horse-and-Buggy Old Order Mennonites

3. Traveling More Rapidly in the Straight and Narrow Way: The Automobile Old Order Mennonites

4. An Old Road with Many Branches: Stauffer Mennonites

5. The First Keepers of the Old Way: The Reformed Mennonites

Section Two: The Conservative Mennonites

6. The Conservative Mennonite Conference

7. Blending the New and the Old

8. The Growing Conservative Mennonite Movement

9. The Conservative Way

Ornament of a Spirit:

The Reasons Covering Styles Change

 

by Cory Anderson (BeachyAM.org owner)

 

This book addresses the Bible teaching about the head covering (1 Cor. 11) and offers observations about current changes in covering styles among plain Anabaptists. From the back cover:

 

The Christian woman's head covering is one of the defining doctrines of the conservative Anabaptist church. Some groups, such as the Amish, have remained consistent in their application of this doctrine from one generation to the next. Others, including many Mennonite and Amish Mennonite groups, have changed styles, often allowing the covering to become smaller, more transparent, or more stylish. 

 

Why do Christian women cover their heads? 

The opening chapters of this book provide basic teachings on the covering, explaining and defending the reasons for wearing it. 

 

Why all the fuss about covering styles?

For those who already understand the doctrine and have a strong conviction for the covering, the bulk of the book explores the symbolic meaning behind different covering styles and probes the underlying motives behind style changes. Readers will find their convictions strengthened as they understand the historical significance of the traditional Anabaptist covering with its hundreds of years of symbolism.

 

Second ed., pgs. 164, s/c. Copies may be ordered for $9.99+$4.95 s/h.

An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World’s Largest Amish Community

 

By Charles Hurst and David McConnell

 

Despite a misleading title, this book about the Amish in Holmes County is about how the many elements of Amish society harmonize to create one of North Americas’ most distinctive, enduring religious sects. The book provides a history of the Holmes County Amish, and treats areas such as occupations, education, health, and change. While about Holmes County, OH, as a specific community, the book is more about Amish practice in general, using this community as a case.

 

 

An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World's Largest Amish Community (Young Center Books in Anabaptist and Pietist Studies)

Helping Children with Special Needs:

A Guidebook for Teachers & Parents of Anabaptist Christian Schools

 

by Jennifer Anderson (BeachyAM.org owner’s wife)

  

Helping Children with Special Needs is written to help teachers of Anabaptist Christian day schools understand issues and hurtles that hinder children from learning. The book is a guide for both inclusive and one on one learning environments. The reader will learn about the role of the teacher and the church community in assisting these children to be included in God’s work and kingdom. While looking at specific disabilities teachers will learn how to develop interventions and goals for their children with special needs. They will learn to detect certain medical alerts, respond appropriately when a child bolts, and discern between reliable and unreliable information. This book also explores non-disability special needs that affect learning, such as poverty, medical problems, trauma, broken homes, and cultural differences. Although Primarily written for teachers this book can also –

· Assist parents of special needs children

· Guide those considering adoption or foster care programs

· Serve as a reference of Board and administration

· Coordinate the work of school parents, and teachers in adequately addressing needs.

· Set realistic expectations and requirements for teachers

 

Pgs. 304, s/c Copies may be ordered for $12.99+$4.95 s/h.

The Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

 

Editors: Cory Anderson and Joseph Donnermeyer

A Free Open Access Journal at the Ohio State University Knowledge Bank

Hard copies may be ordered for $14.99+$4.95 s/h. Order a copy

 

SUBSCRIBE to the JAPAS listserv to receive notices about new issues:

 

The Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies welcomes manuscripts, both theoretical and empirical, about plain Anabaptist groups, including Amish, Apostolic Christian, Brethren, Bruderhof, Hutterite, Russian Mennonite, Swiss Mennonite, and related movements. The journal further seeks to include the rigorous research of members from plain Anabaptist communities, who are invited to submit manuscripts for special consideration.

 

The following articles are from the first issue. Click the link above to view issues since.

 

Vol. 1 Issue 1 (April 2013):

Front Matter 
pp. 0-i 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (62.12Kb)

Editors’ Introduction 
Anderson, Cory; Donnermeyer, Joseph F. pp. ii-iii 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (38.23Kb)

Where Are the Plain Anabaptists? 
Anderson, Cory; Donnermeyer, Joseph F. pp. 1-25 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (870.0Kb)

Who Are the Plain Anabaptists? What Are the Plain Anabaptists? 
Anderson, Cory pp. 26-71 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (469.1Kb)

The Amish Population: County Estimates and Settlement Patterns 
Donnermeyer, Joseph F.; Anderson, Cory; Cooksey, Elizabeth C. pp. 72-109 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (336.6Kb)

A Peculiar People Revisited: Demographic Foundations of the Iowa Amish in the 21st Century 
Cooksey, Elizabeth; Donnermeyer, Joseph F. pp. 110-126 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (359.3Kb)

The Role of Social Capital for Amish Entrepreneurs in Pursuing Informal Economic Opportunities 
Jeong, Seonhee pp. 127-166 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (664.8Kb)

Realignment and Division in the Amish Community of Allen County, Indiana: A Historical Narrative 
Petrovich, Christopher pp. 167-195 
Article description | Article Full Text PDF (179.0Kb)

The Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship churches
Rounded Rectangle: Visit a “Plain” Anabaptist Church like the Beachys
Rounded Rectangle: Frequently Asked Questions
Rounded Rectangle: General Information
Rounded Rectangle: General Library 
and Archives
Rounded Rectangle: Beliefs, Practices, 
and Doctrine
Rounded Rectangle: Institutions and Ministries
Rounded Rectangle: Church Profiles, Maps, and Statistics
Rounded Rectangle: Amish-Mennonites and Other Plain Anabaptists
Rounded Rectangle: About This Website and Site Personnel
Rounded Rectangle: Materials for Beachys (restricted access)
Text Box: The Beachy Amish-Mennonites
Text Box: The Beachy Amish-Mennonites

Title

Author

Year

Type

Area

Church/program

Beachy Amish-Mennonite Fellowship

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Maranatha Amish-Mennonite

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Ambassadors Amish-Mennonite

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Berea Amish-Mennonite

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Midwest Beachy Amish-Mennonite

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Mennonite Christian Fellowship

Anderson, Cory

2012

Encyclopedia

General

General

Facts Concerning the Beachy A.M. Division of 1927

Mast, John

1950

Pamphlet

History

Mountain View A.M.

The Amish Settlement in Somerset County, Pennsylvania

Beachy, Alvin J.

1954

Journal article

History

Mountain View A.M. / Amish

The Rise and Development of the Beachy Amish-Mennonite Churches

Beachy, Alvin J.

1955

Journal article

History

Mountain View A.M.

The Amish of Somerset County, Pennsylvania: A Study of the Rise and Development of the Beachy Amish-Mennonite Churches

Beachy, Alvin J.

1952

Dissertation

History

Mountain View A.M. / Amish

Interview with Henry Yoder (journey from Old Order to Beachy to Mennonite)

Yoder, Henry

2000

Interview

History

Mountain View A.M. / Amish

The Youth Fellowship Meeting: What It Is, and How It Came to Be

Yoder, Harvey

 

Pamphlet

History

Youth Fellowship Meeting

The Founding of Calvary Bible School

Yoder, Steve

2007

Unpublished paper

History

Calvary Bible School

The David O. Burkholder Movement

Miller, Lloyd

1983

Unpublished paper

History

Maple Lawn AM

A History of the Amish Mission Board: The Missions Interest Committee

Hochstetler, Noah

1964

Unpublished paper

History

M.I.C.

The Berlin Story: Amish Mennonite Aid’s Witness in Berlin, Germany

Yoder, David & Marie

1968

Paper

History

A.M.A.—Germany

Triumph of Faith: Amish Mennonite Aid in El Salvador

Bontrager, Herman

1970

Paper

History

A.M.A.—

El Salvador

The Spatial Development and Organization of an Old Order Amish—Beachy Amish Settlement: Nappanee, Indiana

Landing, James E.

1967

Dissertation

Geography

Maple Lawn A.M.

The Failure of Amish Settlements in the South

Landing, James E.

1970

Journal article

Geography

(The South)

The Diffusion of Beachy Amish-Mennonite Congregations in the U.S. South

Anderson, Cory

2006

Thesis

Geography

(The South)

The Amish of Thomas, Oklahoma: A Study in Cultural Geography

Branson, Kay Parker

1967

Thesis

Geography

Zion A.M. (OK)

A Study in Four Segments of a Beachy Church Youth Group

Anderson, Cory

2004

Unpublished paper

Sociology

Faith Mission F.

An Analysis of Amish Mennonite Aid’s Development Paradigm

Anderson, Cory

2004

Unpublished paper

Sociology

A.M.A.

Family Integration and Psychological Well-Being among Older Adult Beachy Amish

Lesher, Emerson

1983

Dissertation

Psychology

(General)

The Changing Amish: An Intergenerational Study

Yutzy, Daniel

1961

Thesis

Sociology

Plain City, OH

An Examination of Child Abuse in Five Beachy Amish Congregations: An Application of Korbin’s Cross-Cultural Model of Child Abuse (note: he found minimal instances of abuse)

Morris, Bradley

1994

Thesis

Psychology

Plain City, OH / others

Amish-Mennonite Barns in Madison County, Ohio: The Persistence of Traditional Form Elements

Wilhelm, Hubert G.H.

1976

Journal article

Geography

Plain City, OH

A Beachy Amish Perspective on the Anabaptist Vision

McGrath, Menno Burt

1994

Unpublished paper

Religious studies

(General)

Points That Stimulate Continuity for the Amish and Their Sister Groups to Maintain Their Distinctive Order

Yoder, James

1984

Book chapter

Religious studies

 

The Development of Missional Vision in a Midwestern Amish-Mennonite Congregation

Matthews, Samuel

2001

Dissertation

Religious studies

Pleasant View A.M. (IL)

.A Survey of Mt. View’s Faith

Russell, Stephen

1978?

Unpublished paper

Religious studies

Mountain View A.M.

Caesar and the Meidung

Yoder, John Howard

1949

Journal article

Religious studies

Fryburg Beachy

Understanding Mennonitism: A Visual Ethno-graphy of the Beachy Amish-Mennonites of Lott, Texas

Gaetz, Susan Melinda

1994

Dissertation

Media studies

Faith Mennonite Fellowship

The Amish-Mennonites of Kempsville, Virginia: 1900-1970

Zook, Leon

Miller, Leroy

1995

Book

 

Kempsville A.M.

Mountain View Mennonite Church, Salisbury, PA: 50th Anniversary

(no author)

2003

Booklet

 

Mountain View A.M.

The Emerging Woodlawn Church: A Study of Cultural Change in an Amish Group

King, Calvin

1963

Unpublished paper

Sociology

Woodlawn A.M.

A History of Radiant, VA

Beachy, Esther

1958

Unpublished paper

History

Oak Grove M.

A History of Bethel Fellowship: An Amish Congregation in Holmes County, OH

Miller, Sara Ellen

1961

Unpublished paper

History

Bethel Fellowship

The History of Maranatha Fellowship Church

Miller, Chris

2009

Unpublished paper

History

Maranatha A.M.F.

The Old Order Amish at Stuarts Draft, Virginia

Beachy, Moses

1954

Unpublished paper

History

Mt. Zion A.M.

Congregational History of Amish-Mennonite Church at Stuarts Draft, Virginia

Schrock, Mary

1957

Unpublished paper

History

Mt. Zion A.M.

Childhood and Belief among the Beachy Amish, Kennedyville, Maryland

David, Jonathan

1983

Unpublished paper

Anthropology

Harmony C.F.

A History of the Valley View Amish-Mennonite Church

Yoder, Elmer S.

1963

Unpublished paper

History

Valley View A.M.

Boundary Maintenance among Ontario Amish-Mennonites

Laurence, Hugh Getty

1983

Unpublished paper

History / Sociology

Cedar Grove A.M. / Mornington A.M.

The Amish “Mission Movement” and the Reformulation of Amish Identity in the Twentieth Century

Nolt, Steve

2001

Journal article

History

General / M.I.C. / Woodlawn A.M.

The Amish, Evangelizing

Burkholder, Betty

1960

Unpublished paper

History

M.I.C.

The History of the Weavertown Amish-Mennonite Church Building

Lapp, Barbara Ann

1960

History

History

Weavertown A.M.

An Amish Church Adopts the Automobile

Loomis, Charles

1960

Book chapter

Sociology

Weavertown A.M.

Founding and Growth of the Beachy Amish Church of Lancaster County

Glick, Aaron (Daniel Moyer, interviewer)

1985

Interview transcript

History

Weavertown A.M.

History of Weavertown Amish-Mennonite Congregation

Lapp, Ferne Eileen

1963

Unpublished paper

History

Weavertown A.M.

Pequea Amish-Mennonite Church: Twenty Fifth Anniversary

Glick, Aaron

1987

Booklet

History

Pequea A.M.

Into a Promised Land: Georgia’s Amish-Mennonites Keep the Faith

Garvey, Jane

2004

Magazine article

 

Montezuma A.M.

Fauquier’s Amish-Mennonites

Rumph, Marilyn

1992

Magazine article

 

Pine Grove M. / Faith Christian F.

An Experimental Report of an Internship with the Nottawa Christian (Beachy Amish) Day School

Allabach, Daisy

1977

Thesis

Education

Pilgrim Fellowship

Science Education in an Amish-Mennonite Community and School

Crockett, Denise

1999

Dissertation

Education

Cold Spring M.

Whose Education? Reform, Culture, and an Amish-Mennonite Community

Waite, Duncan & Crockett, Denise

1997

Journal article

Education

Cold Spring M.

The Beachy Amish in Iowa: A Case Study

Schwieder, Dorothy and Elmer

1977

Journal article

Sociology

Sharon Bethel A.M.

The Beachy Amish (from A Peculiar People: Iowa’s Old Order Amish)

Schwieder, Elmer and Dorothy

1975

Book chapter

Sociology

Sharon Bethel A.M.

The Beachy-Amish [sic.] Churches of America

Szulczewski, M.S.

1987

Journal article

Sociology

General

The Beachy Amish Mission in Europe (1980-1990)

Allemang, Marie-Odile

1993

Book chapter

Sociology

M.I.C.—Belgium

European Project

Yoder, James

1982

Booklet

 

M.I.C.—Belgium

The Amish Mission Movement of the 1950s and Its Effects on the Amish Community of Partridge, Kansas

Miller, Peter

2008

Unpublished paper

History

Center A.M.

Religious Identity and Language Shift among Amish-Mennonites in Kishacoquillas Valley, Pennsylvania

Brown, Joshua

2011

Dissertation

Linguistics

Valley View A.M. /Pleasant View A.M.

Congregation or Conference? The Development of Beachy Amish Polity and Identity

Anderson, Cory

2011

Journal article

Sociology

Bishop committee

Continuity and Change in a Southern Beachy Amish-Mennonite Congregation

Smith, William L.

2013

Journal article

Sociology

Montezuma A.M.

A Letter from a Man Who Returned to the Amish after 20 Years (from The Diary)

Beachy, Samuel

1993

Article

 

 

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